winona rosa

Friday, December 23, 2011

EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTI​ON AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS

-CITE- 28 USC CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -MISC1- Sec. 1391. Venue generally. 1392. Defendants or property in different districts in same State. [1393. Repealed.] 1394. Banking association's action against Comptroller of Currency. 1395. Fine, penalty or forfeiture. 1396. Internal revenue taxes. 1397. Interpleader. 1398. Interstate Commerce Commission's orders. 1399. Partition action involving United States. 1400. Patents and copyrights, mask works, and designs. 1401. Stockholder's derivative action. 1402. United States as defendant. 1403. Eminent domain. 1404. Change of venue. 1405. Creation or alteration of district or division. 1406. Cure or waiver of defects. 1407. Multidistrict litigation. 1408. Venue of cases under title 11. 1409. Venue of proceedings arising under title 11 or arising in or related to cases under title 11. 1410. Venue of cases ancillary to foreign proceedings. 1411. Jury trials. 1412. Change of venue. 1413. Venue of cases under chapter 5 of title 3. AMENDMENTS 1998 - Pub. L. 105-304, title V, Sec. 503(c)(3), Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2917 inserted ", mask works, and designs" in item 1400. 1996 - Pub. L. 104-331, Sec. 3(b)(2)(B), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4069, which directed amendment of table of sections for chapter 37 by adding item 1413 at end, was executed by adding item 1413 at end of table of sections for chapter 87 to reflect the probable intent of Congress. 1988 - Pub. L. 100-702, title X, Sec. 1001(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4664, struck out item 1393 "Divisions; single defendant; defendants in different divisions". 1984 - Pub. L. 98-353, title I, Sec. 102(b), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 335, added items 1408 to 1412. 1978 - Pub. L. 95-598, title II, Sec. 240(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2668, directed the addition of item 1408, "Bankruptcy appeals", which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95-598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy. 1968 - Pub. L. 90-296, Sec. 2, Apr. 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 110, added item 1407. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1391 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1391. Venue generally -STATUTE- (a) A civil action wherein jurisdiction is founded only on diversity of citizenship may, except as otherwise provided by law, be brought only in (1) a judicial district where any defendant resides, if all defendants reside in the same State, (2) a judicial district in which a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated, or (3) a judicial district in which any defendant is subject to personal jurisdiction at the time the action is commenced, if there is no district in which the action may otherwise be brought. (b) A civil action wherein jurisdiction is not founded solely on diversity of citizenship may, except as otherwise provided by law, be brought only in (1) a judicial district where any defendant resides, if all defendants reside in the same State, (2) a judicial district in which a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated, or (3) a judicial district in which any defendant may be found, if there is no district in which the action may otherwise be brought. (c) For purposes of venue under this chapter, a defendant that is a corporation shall be deemed to reside in any judicial district in which it is subject to personal jurisdiction at the time the action is commenced. In a State which has more than one judicial district and in which a defendant that is a corporation is subject to personal jurisdiction at the time an action is commenced, such corporation shall be deemed to reside in any district in that State within which its contacts would be sufficient to subject it to personal jurisdiction if that district were a separate State, and, if there is no such district, the corporation shall be deemed to reside in the district within which it has the most significant contacts. (d) An alien may be sued in any district. (e) A civil action in which a defendant is an officer or employee of the United States or any agency thereof acting in his official capacity or under color of legal authority, or an agency of the United States, or the United States, may, except as otherwise provided by law, be brought in any judicial district in which (1) a defendant in the action resides, (2) a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated, or (3) the plaintiff resides if no real property is involved in the action. Additional persons may be joined as parties to any such action in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and with such other venue requirements as would be applicable if the United States or one of its officers, employees, or agencies were not a party. The summons and complaint in such an action shall be served as provided by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure except that the delivery of the summons and complaint to the officer or agency as required by the rules may be made by certified mail beyond the territorial limits of the district in which the action is brought. (f) A civil action against a foreign state as defined in section 1603(a) of this title may be brought - (1) in any judicial district in which a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated; (2) in any judicial district in which the vessel or cargo of a foreign state is situated, if the claim is asserted under section 1605(b) of this title; (3) in any judicial district in which the agency or instrumentality is licensed to do business or is doing business, if the action is brought against an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state as defined in section 1603(b) of this title; or (4) in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia if the action is brought against a foreign state or political subdivision thereof. (g) A civil action in which jurisdiction of the district court is based upon section 1369 of this title may be brought in any district in which any defendant resides or in which a substantial part of the accident giving rise to the action took place. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 935; Pub. L. 87-748, Sec. 2, Oct. 5, 1962, 76 Stat. 744; Pub. L. 88-234, Dec. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 473; Pub. L. 89-714, Secs. 1, 2, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1111; Pub. L. 94- 574, Sec. 3, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 94-583, Sec. 5, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2897; Pub. L. 100-702, title X, Sec. 1013(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4669; Pub. L. 101-650, title III, Sec. 311, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5114; Pub. L. 102-198, Sec. 3, Dec. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 1623; Pub. L. 102-572, title V, Sec. 504, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4513; Pub. L. 104-34, Sec. 1, Oct. 3, 1995, 109 Stat. 293; Pub. L. 107-273, div. C, title I, Sec. 11020(b)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1827.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Secs. 111, 112 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Secs. 50, 51, 36 Stat. 1101; Sept. 19, 1922, ch. 345, 42 Stat. 849; Mar. 4, 1925, ch. 526, Sec. 1, 43 Stat. 1264; Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 230, 49 Stat. 1213). Section consolidates section 111 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with part of section 112 of such title. The portion of section 112 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to venue generally constitutes this section and the parts relating to arrest of the defendant, venue and process in stockholders' actions constitute sections 1401, 1693, and 1695 of this title. Provision in section 111 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that a district court may proceed as to parties before it although one or more defendants do not reside in the district, and that its judgment shall be without prejudice to such absent defendants, was omitted as covered by rule 19(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Word "action" was substituted for "suit" in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Word "reside" was substituted for "whereof he is an inhabitant" for clarity inasmuch as "inhabitant" and "resident" are synonymous. (See Ex parte Shaw, 1892, 12 S.Ct. 935, 145 U.S. 444, 36 L.Ed. 768; Standard Stoker Co., Inc. v. Lower, D.C., 1931, 46 F.2d 678; Edgewater Realty Co. v. Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co., D.C., 1943, 49 F.Supp. 807.) Reference to "all plaintiffs" and "all defendants" were substituted for references to "the plaintiff" and "the defendant," in view of many decisions holding that the singular terms were used in a collective sense. (See Smith v. Lyon, 1890, 10 S.Ct. 303, 133 U.S. 315, 33 L.Ed. 635; Hooe v. Jamieson, 1897, 17 S.Ct. 596, 166 U.S. 395, 41 L.Ed. 1049; and Fetzer v. Livermore, D.C., 1926, 15 F.2d 462.) In subsection (c), references to defendants "found" within a district or voluntarily appearing were omitted. The use of the word "found" made section 111 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., ambiguous. The argument that an action could be brought in the district where one defendant resided and a nonresident defendant was "found," was rejected in Camp v. Gress, 1919, 39 S.Ct. 478, 250 U.S. 308, 63 L.Ed. 997. However, this ambiguity will be obviated in the future by the omission of such reference. Subsection (d) of this section is added to give statutory recognition to the weight of authority concerning a rule of venue as to which there has been a sharp conflict of decisions. (See Sandusky Foundry & Machine Co. v. DeLavand, 1918, D.C.Ohio, 251 F. 631, 632, and cases cited. See also Keating v. Pennsylvania Co., 1917, D.C.Ohio, 245 F. 155 and cases cited.) Changes were made in phraseology. -REFTEXT- REFERENCES IN TEXT The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (e), are set out in the Appendix to this title. -MISC2- AMENDMENTS 2002 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 107-273 added subsec. (g). 1995 - Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104-34 substituted "any defendant is" for "the defendants are". 1992 - Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102-572 inserted before period at end ", if there is no district in which the action may otherwise be brought". 1991 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102-198 substituted "in (1)" for "if (1)". 1990 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101-650, Sec. 311(1), substituted cls. (1) to (3) for "the judicial district where all plaintiffs or all defendants reside, or in which the claim arose". Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101-650, Sec. 311(2), substituted "may, except as otherwise provided by law, be brought only if" and cls. (1) to (3) for "may be brought only in the judicial district where all defendants reside, or in which the claim arose, except as otherwise provided by law". Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101-650, Sec. 311(3), substituted "(2) a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated, or (3)" for "or (2) the cause of action arose, or (3) any real property involved in the action is situated, or (4)". 1988 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100-702 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "A corporation may be sued in any judicial district in which it is incorporated or licensed to do business or is doing business, and such judicial district shall be regarded as the residence of such corporation for venue purposes." 1976 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94-574 provided that, in actions against the United States, its agencies, or officers or employees in their official capacities, additional persons may be joined in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and with other venue requirements which would be applicable if the United States, its agencies, or one of its officers or employees were not a party. Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94-583 added subsec. (f). 1966 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89-714, Sec. 1, authorized a civil action to be brought in the judicial district in which the claim arose. Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89-714, Sec. 1, authorized a civil action to be brought in the judicial district in which the claim arose. Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 89-714, Sec. 2, repealed subsec. (f) which permitted a civil action on a tort claim arising out of the manufacture, assembly, repair, ownership, maintenance, use, or operation of an automobile to be brought in the judicial district wherein the act or omission complained of occurred. Present provisions are now contained in subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section. 1963 - Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 88-234 added subsec. (f) 1962 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 87-748 added subsec. (e). EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 107-273 applicable to a civil action if the accident giving rise to the cause of action occurred on or after the 90th day after Nov. 2, 2002, see section 11020(c) of Pub. L. 107-273, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1369 of this title. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 102-572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101(a) of Pub. L. 102-572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT Section 1013(b) of title X of Pub. L. 100-702 provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] takes effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this title [Nov. 19, 1988]." EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 94-583 effective 90 days after Oct. 21, 1976, see section 8 of Pub. L. 94-583, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1602 of this title. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1392 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1392. Defendants or property in different districts in same State -STATUTE- Any civil action, of a local nature, involving property located in different districts in the same State, may be brought in any of such districts. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 935; Pub. L. 104-220, Sec. 1, Oct. 1, 1996, 110 Stat. 3023.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Secs. 113, 116 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Secs. 52, 55, 36 Stat. 1101, 1102). Section consolidates section 113 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with section 116 of such title. Last sentence of section 113 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to execution on judgments or decrees, was omitted as covered by section 2001 et seq. of this title. Words "civil action" were substituted for "suit" in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Words of said section 113, "against a single defendant, inhabitant of such State, must be brought in the district where he resides" were omitted as covered by section 1391 of this title. Words of section 116 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., "land or other subject matter of a fixed character" were deleted and the word "property" substituted for flexibility and uniformity. (See sections 754, 1692, of this title and reviser's notes thereunder.) Words of said section 116, "and the court in which it is brought shall have jurisdiction to hear and decide it, and to cause mesne or final process to be issued and executed, as fully as if the said subject matter were wholly within the district for which such court is constituted" were omitted as surplusage and fully covered by Rule 4 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Said rule also covers the following omitted language: "A duplicate writ may be issued against the defendants, directed to the marshal of any other district in which any defendant resides." Changes were made in phraseology. AMENDMENTS 1996 - Pub. L. 104-220 struck out "(b)" before "Any civil action" and struck out subsec. (a) which read as follows: "Any civil action, not of a local nature, against defendants residing in different districts in the same State, may be brought in any of such districts." -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1393 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1393. Repealed. -MISC1- [Sec. 1393. Repealed. Pub. L. 100-702, title X, Sec. 1001(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4664]. Section, act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 935, related to divisional venue in civil cases of a single defendant or defendants in different divisions. EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL Section 1001(b) of Pub. L. 100-702 provided that: "The amendments made by this section [repealing this section] take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 1988]." -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1394 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1394. Banking association's action against Comptroller of Currency -STATUTE- Any civil action by a national banking association to enjoin the Comptroller of the Currency, under the provisions of any Act of Congress relating to such associations, may be prosecuted in the judicial district where such association is located. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 935.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 110 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 49, 36 Stat. 1100). Words "Any civil action" were substituted for "All proceedings," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Changes were made in phraseology. -TRANS- EXCEPTION AS TO TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS Functions vested by any provision of law in the Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, were not included in the transfer of functions of officers, agencies and employees of the Department of the Treasury to the Secretary of the Treasury, made by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, Sec. 1, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280. See section 321(c)(2) of Title 31, Money and Finance. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1395 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1395. Fine, penalty or forfeiture -STATUTE- (a) A civil proceeding for the recovery of a pecuniary fine, penalty or forfeiture may be prosecuted in the district where it accrues or the defendant is found. (b) A civil proceeding for the forfeiture of property may be prosecuted in any district where such property is found. (c) A civil proceeding for the forfeiture of property seized outside any judicial district may be prosecuted in any district into which the property is brought. (d) A proceeding in admiralty for the enforcement of fines, penalties and forfeitures against a vessel may be brought in any district in which the vessel is arrested. (e) Any proceeding for the forfeiture of a vessel or cargo entering a port of entry closed by the President in pursuance of law, or of goods and chattels coming from a State or section declared by proclamation of the President to be in insurrection, or of any vessel or vehicle conveying persons or property to or from such State or section or belonging in whole or in part to a resident thereof, may be prosecuted in any district into which the property is taken and in which the proceeding is instituted. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 936.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Secs. 104, 106, 107, and 108, and section 3745(c) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Secs. 43, 45, 46, 47, 36 Stat. 1100; Feb. 10, 1939, ch. 2, Sec. 3745(c), 53 Stat. 460). This section consolidates section 3745(c) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with sections 104, 106, 107, and 108 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to venue in civil proceedings to recover and enforce civil fines, penalties, and forfeitures, pecuniary or otherwise. Subsection (a) is based on said section 104 of title 28 and said section 3745(c) of title 26. Subsections (b) and (c) consolidate such sections 106 and 107 of title 28. Subsection (e) is based on such section 108 of title 28. Subsection (b) substituted words "may be prosecuted in any district where such property is found" for "shall be prosecuted in the district where the seizure is made," to include not only property seized, but also all other property subject to forfeiture. Words "civil" and "fine" were inserted to make this section applicable to the many provisions of the United States Code for fines essentially civil. (See reviser's note under section 1355 of this title.) Provisions of section 3745(c) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that such suit may be brought "before any other court of competent jurisdiction" were omitted as misleading surplusage, since United States district courts, under section 1355 of this title, have exclusive jurisdiction. Subsection (d) was added for completeness and clarity. Changes were made in phraseology. SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT While section 3745(c) of Title 26, U.S.C., Internal Revenue Code, is one of the sources of this section, it was eliminated from the schedule of repeals by Senate amendment. Therefore, such section 3745(c) remains in Title 26. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1396 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1396. Internal revenue taxes -STATUTE- Any civil action for the collection of internal revenue taxes may be brought in the district where the liability for such tax accrues, in the district of the taxpayer's residence, or in the district where the return was filed. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 936.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 105, and section 3744 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 44, 36 Stat. 1100; Feb. 10, 1939, ch. 2, Sec. 3744, 53 Stat. 460). Section consolidates section 3744 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code, with section 105 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Words "or in the district where the return was filed" are new. This extension of venue will permit of an action in a district easily determinable for collection of revenue earned in several districts, or States, but the return for which is filed with one collector. Changes were made in phraseology. SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT While section 3744 of Title 26, U.S.C., Internal Revenue Code [1939], is one of the sources of this section, it was eliminated from the schedule of repeals by Senate amendment. Therefore, it remains in Title 26 [I.R.C. 1939]. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1397 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1397. Interpleader -STATUTE- Any civil action of interpleader or in the nature of interpleader under section 1335 of this title may be brought in the judicial district in which one or more of the claimants reside. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 936.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 41(26) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 24, par. 26, as added Jan. 20, 1936, ch. 13, Sec. 1, 49 Stat. 1096). Provisions of section 41(26) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to jurisdiction are the basis of section 1335 of this title and other provisions thereof are incorporated in section 2361 of this title. Words "civil action" were substituted for "suit," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Changes were made in phraseology. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1398 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1398. Interstate Commerce Commission's orders -STATUTE- (a) Except as otherwise provided by law, a civil action brought under section 1336(a) of this title shall be brought only in a judicial district in which any of the parties bringing the action resides or has its principal office. (b) A civil action to enforce, enjoin, set aside, annul, or suspend, in whole or in part, an order of the Interstate Commerce Commission made pursuant to the referral of a question or issue by a district court or by the United States Court of Federal Claims, shall be brought only in the court which referred the question or issue. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 936; Pub. L. 88-513, Sec. 2, Aug. 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 93-584, Sec. 2, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1917; Pub. L. 97-164, title I, Sec. 130, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 39; Pub. L. 102-572, title IX, Sec. 902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 43 (Oct. 22, 1913, ch. 32, 38 Stat. 219). This section is completely rewritten to give effect to changes recommended by the Judicial Conference of the United States. Section 43 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is as follows: "Sec. 43. Venue of suits relating to orders of Interstate Commerce Commission. "The venue of any suit brought to enforce, suspend, or set aside, in whole or in part, any order of the Interstate Commerce Commission shall be in the judicial district wherein is the residence of the party or any of the parties upon whose petition the order was made, except that where the order does not relate to transportation or is not made upon the petition of any party the venue shall be in the district where the matter complained of in the petition before the commission arises, and except that where the order does not relate either to transportation or to a matter so complained of before the commission the matter covered by the order shall be deemed to arise in the district where one of the petitioners in court has either its principal office or its principal operating office. In case such transportation relates to a through shipment the term 'destination' shall be construed as meaning final destination of such shipment." The amendment of section 207 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., proposed by the Judicial Conference is: "Except as otherwise provided in the Act entitled 'An Act to Regulate Commerce', approved February 4, 1887, as amended, the venue of any suit brought to enforce, suspend, or set aside, in whole or in part, any order of the Interstate Commerce Commission shall be in the judicial district wherein is the residence of the party or any of the parties bringing the suit or wherein such party or any of such parties has its principal office." The revised section substitutes the words "Except as otherwise provided by law" for the words of the conference bill, "in the act entitled 'An Act to Regulate Commerce, approved February 4, 1887, as amended' ". (See section 16 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which provides for jurisdiction and venue of actions to enforce Interstate Commerce Commission orders for the payment of money.) AMENDMENTS 1992 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102-572 substituted "United States Court of Federal Claims" for "United States Claims Court". 1982 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97-164 substituted "United States Claims Court" for "Court of Claims". 1975 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93-584 substituted provisions that civil actions under section 1336(a) of this title shall be brought only in a judicial district in which any of the parties bringing the action resides or has its principal office, for provisions that civil actions to enforce, suspend, or set aside in whole or in part orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission shall be brought in such judicial district. 1964 - Pub. L. 88-513 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b). EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 102-572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102-572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 97-164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97-164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1975 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 93-584 not applicable to actions commenced on or before last day of first month beginning after Jan. 2, 1975, and actions to enjoin or suspend orders of Interstate Commerce Commission which are pending when this amendment becomes effective shall not be affected thereby, but shall proceed to final disposition under the law existing on the date they were commenced, see section 10 of Pub. L. 93-584, set out as a note under section 2321 of this title. -TRANS- ABOLITION OF INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION AND TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104- 88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 702 of Title 49, Transportation, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104-88, set out as a note under section 701 of Title 49. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104-88, set out as a note under section 701 of Title 49. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1399 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1399. Partition action involving United States -STATUTE- Any civil action by any tenant in common or joint tenant for the partition of lands, where the United States is one of the tenants in common or joint tenants, may be brought only in the judicial district where such lands are located or, if located in different districts in the same State, in any of such districts. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 936.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 41(25) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 24, par. 25, 36 Stat. 1094). Provisions of section 41(25) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to jurisdiction are the basis of section 1347 of this title. Words "civil action" were substituted for "suits in equity," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Provision with respect to property in different districts was added to conform with section 1392 of this title. Changes were made in phraseology. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1400 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1400. Patents and copyrights, mask works, and designs -STATUTE- (a) Civil actions, suits, or proceedings arising under any Act of Congress relating to copyrights or exclusive rights in mask works or designs may be instituted in the district in which the defendant or his agent resides or may be found. (b) Any civil action for patent infringement may be brought in the judicial district where the defendant resides, or where the defendant has committed acts of infringement and has a regular and established place of business. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 936; Pub. L. 100-702, title X, Sec. 1020(a)(5), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4671; Pub. L. 105-304, title V, Sec. 503(c)(1), (2), Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2917; Pub. L. 106-44, Sec. 2(a), Aug. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 223.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 109, and section 35 of title 17, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Copyrights (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 320, Sec. 35, 35 Stat. 1084; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 48, 36 Stat. 1100). Section consolidates section 35 of title 17, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with part of section 109 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology. Subsection (b) is based on section 109 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with the following changes: Words "civil action" were substituted for "suit," and words "in law or in equity," after "shall have jurisdiction" were deleted, in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Words in subsection (b) "where the defendant resides" were substituted for "of which the defendant is an inhabitant." A corresponding change was made in subsection (a). Words "inhabitant" and "resident," as respects venue, are synonymous. (See reviser's note under section 1391 of this title.) Words "whether a person, partnership, or corporation" before "has committed" were omitted as surplusage. The provisions of section 109 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to process are incorporated in section 1694 of this title. Jurisdiction and venue of patent suits against residents of foreign countries or persons residing in plurality of districts, see section 72a of title 35, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Patents. SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT Title 17 of the United States Code was enacted into positive law by act July 30, 1947, ch. 391, 61 Stat. 652, and, in such enactment, section 35 of the prior title became section 111 of the new title, and all Acts from which sections of the prior title had been derived, were repealed. Therefore, this paragraph should read: "Based on Title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 109 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 48, 36 Stat. 1100), and section 111 of Title 17, U.S.C., 1946 ed., Copyrights." By Senate amendment, section 111 of Title 17 U.S.C., is included in the schedule of repeals. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559. AMENDMENTS 1999 - Pub. L. 106-44 amended section catchline generally so as to read "Patents and copyrights, mask works, and designs". 1998 - Pub. L. 105-304, Sec. 503(c)(2), amended section catchline generally, substituting "Patents and copyrights, mask works, and designs" for "Patents and copyrights". Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-304, Sec. 503(c)(1), inserted "or designs" after "mask works". 1988 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100-702 inserted "or exclusive rights in mask works" after "copyrights". -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1401 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1401. Stockholder's derivative action -STATUTE- Any civil action by a stockholder on behalf of his corporation may be prosecuted in any judicial district where the corporation might have sued the same defendants. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 936.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 112 (part) (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 51, 36 Stat. 1101; Sept. 19, 1922, ch. 345, 42 Stat. 849; Mar. 4, 1925, ch. 526, Sec. 1, 43 Stat. 1264; Apr. 16, 1936, ch. 230, 49 Stat. 1213). For disposition of other provisions of section 112 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., see reviser's note under section 1391 of this title. Words "civil action" were substituted for "suit," in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Words "other than said corporation," after "same defendants," were omitted as superfluous. Obviously a corporation would not be suing itself. Changes were made in phraseology. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1402 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1402. United States as defendant -STATUTE- (a) Any civil action in a district court against the United States under subsection (a) of section 1346 of this title may be prosecuted only: (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), in the judicial district where the plaintiff resides; (2) In the case of a civil action by a corporation under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of section 1346, in the judicial district in which is located the principal place of business or principal office or agency of the corporation; or if it has no principal place of business or principal office or agency in any judicial district (A) in the judicial district in which is located the office to which was made the return of the tax in respect of which the claim is made, or (B) if no return was made, in the judicial district in which lies the District of Columbia. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this paragraph a district court, for the convenience of the parties and witnesses, in the interest of justice, may transfer any such action to any other district or division. (b) Any civil action on a tort claim against the United States under subsection (b) of section 1346 of this title may be prosecuted only in the judicial district where the plaintiff resides or wherein the act or omission complained of occurred. (c) Any civil action against the United States under subsection (e) of section 1346 of this title may be prosecuted only in the judicial district where the property is situated at the time of levy, or if no levy is made, in the judicial district in which the event occurred which gave rise to the cause of action. (d) Any civil action under section 2409a to quiet title to an estate or interest in real property in which an interest is claimed by the United States shall be brought in the district court of the district where the property is located or, if located in different districts, in any of such districts. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 937; Pub. L. 85-920, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1770; Pub. L. 89-719, title II, Sec. 202(b), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1149; Pub. L. 92-562, Sec. 2, Oct. 25, 1972, 86 Stat. 1176; Pub. L. 97-164, title I, Sec. 131, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 39.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Secs. 762, 931(a) (Mar. 3, 1887, ch. 359, Sec. 5, 24 Stat. 506; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, Sec. 410(a), 60 Stat. 843). Section consolidates the venue provisions of section 762 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with the venue provisions of section 931(a) of such title, the latter provisions relating to tort claims cases. The jurisdictional provisions of such section 931(a) are incorporated in section 1346(b) of this title. For other provisions thereof, see Distribution Table. Provisions of section 762 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to the verification and contents of a petition filed against the United States were omitted as unnecessary. Section 265 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relative to the petition in cases filed in the Court of Claims was also omitted from the revised title. (See, also, Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.) Words "civil action" were substituted for "suit" in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Changes were made in phraseology. AMENDMENTS 1982 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97-164 inserted "in a district court" after "civil action" in introductory provisions preceding par. (1). The phrase "civil action" also appeared in par. (2), but no change was made to reflect the probable intent of Congress as indicated on page 79 of House Report No. 97-312. 1972 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92-562 added subsec. (d). 1966 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89-719 added subsec. (c). 1958 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85-920 provided for venue and change of venue in tax refund suits by corporation. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 97-164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97-164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 89-719 applicable after Nov. 2, 1966, see section 203 of Pub. L. 89-719, set out as a note under section 1346 of this title. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1403 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1403. Eminent domain -STATUTE- Proceedings to condemn real estate for the use of the United States or its departments or agencies shall be brought in the district court of the district where the land is located or, if located in different districts in the same State, in any of such districts. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 937.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on section 257 of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Public Buildings, Property, and Works (Aug. 1, 1888, ch. 728, Sec. 1, 25 Stat. 357; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 291, 36 Stat. 1167). Section constitutes the first clause of the second sentence of section 257, of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed. The revised section is expressive of the purpose of such section 257 with necessary changes in phraseology. The jurisdiction provision of section 257 of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is incorporated in section 1358 of this title. The remainder of section 257 of title 40, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is retained in said title 40. Provision with respect to property in different districts was added to conform with section 1392 of this title. See, also, section 1392 of this title which fixes venue of an action involving property in different districts in the same State. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1404 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1404. Change of venue -STATUTE- (a) For the convenience of parties and witnesses, in the interest of justice, a district court may transfer any civil action to any other district or division where it might have been brought. (b) Upon motion, consent or stipulation of all parties, any action, suit or proceeding of a civil nature or any motion or hearing thereof, may be transferred, in the discretion of the court, from the division in which pending to any other division in the same district. Transfer of proceedings in rem brought by or on behalf of the United States may be transferred under this section without the consent of the United States where all other parties request transfer. (c) A district court may order any civil action to be tried at any place within the division in which it is pending. (d) As used in this section, the term "district court" includes the District Court of Guam, the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, and the District Court of the Virgin Islands, and the term "district" includes the territorial jurisdiction of each such court. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 937; Pub. L. 87-845, Sec. 9, Oct. 18, 1962, 76A Stat. 699; Pub. L. 104-317, title VI, Sec. 610(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3860.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Secs. 119, 163 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 58, 36 Stat. 1103; Sept. 8, 1916, ch. 475, Sec. 5, 39 Stat. 851). Section consolidates sections 119 and 163 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology and substance. Section 119 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., related only to transfer of cases from one division to another on stipulation of the parties. Subsection (a) was drafted in accordance with the doctrine of forum non conveniens, permitting transfer to a more convenient forum, even though the venue is proper. As an example of the need of such a provision, see Baltimore & Ohio R. Co. v. Kepner, 1941, 62 S.Ct. 6, 314 U.S. 44, 86 L.Ed. 28, which was prosecuted under the Federal Employer's Liability Act in New York, although the accident occurred and the employee resided in Ohio. The new subsection requires the court to determine that the transfer is necessary for convenience of the parties and witnesses, and further, that it is in the interest of justice to do so. Sections 143, 172, 177, and 181 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to the district courts of Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, and Ohio, contained special provisions similar to subsection (b), applicable to those States. To establish uniformity, the general language of such subsection has been drafted and the special provisions of those sections omitted. Subsection (b) is based upon section 163 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which applied only to the district of Maine. This revised subsection extends to all judicial districts and permits transfer of cases between divisions. Criminal cases may be transferred pursuant to Rules 19-21 of the new Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, and the criminal provisions of said section 163 are therefore omitted. AMENDMENTS 1996 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-317 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "As used in this section, 'district court' includes the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone; and 'district' includes the territorial jurisdiction of that court." 1962 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87-845 added subsec. (d). EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT Section 610(c) of Pub. L. 104-317 provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1406 of this title] apply to cases pending on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1996] and to cases commenced on or after such date." EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 87-845 effective Jan. 2, 1963, see section 25 of Pub. L. 87-845, set out as a note under section 414 of this title. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1405 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1405. Creation or alteration of district or division -STATUTE- Actions or proceedings pending at the time of the creation of a new district or division or transfer of a county or territory from one division or district to another may be tried in the district or division as it existed at the institution of the action or proceeding, or in the district or division so created or to which the county or territory is so transferred as the parties shall agree or the court direct. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 937.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 121 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, Sec. 59, 36 Stat. 1103). Enforcement of liens in like circumstances is provided by section 1656 of this title. Remainder of section 121 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is incorporated in section 3240 of revised title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure (H.R. 1600, 80th Cong.). Changes were made in phraseology. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1406 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1406. Cure or waiver of defects -STATUTE- (a) The district court of a district in which is filed a case laying venue in the wrong division or district shall dismiss, or if it be in the interest of justice, transfer such case to any district or division in which it could have been brought. (b) Nothing in this chapter shall impair the jurisdiction of a district court of any matter involving a party who does not interpose timely and sufficient objection to the venue. (c) As used in this section, the term "district court" includes the District Court of Guam, the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, and the District Court of the Virgin Islands, and the term "district" includes the territorial jurisdiction of each such court. -SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 937; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, Sec. 81, 63 Stat. 101; Pub. L. 86-770, Sec. 1, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 912; Pub. L. 87-845, Sec. 10, Oct. 18, 1962, 76A Stat. 699; Pub. L. 97-164, title I, Sec. 132, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 39; Pub. L. 104- 317, title VI, Sec. 610(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3860.) -MISC1- HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES 1948 ACT Subsection (a) provides statutory sanction for transfer instead of dismissal, where venue is improperly laid. Subsection (b) is declaratory of existing law. (See Panama R.R. Co. v. Johnson, 1924, 44 S.Ct. 391, 264 U.S. 375, 68 L.Ed. 748.) It makes clear the intent of Congress that venue provisions are not jurisdictional but may be waived. 1949 ACT This section removes an ambiguity in section 1406(a) of title 28, U.S.C., by substituting "may" for "shall", thus making it clear that the court may decline to transfer a case brought in the wrong district under circumstances where it would not be in the interest of justice to make such transfer. [The amendment to section 1406(a) of this title described in this note was altered in the bill as enacted. See Cong. Rec., vol. 95, pt. 5, pp. 5826, 5827, 6283, 6284.] AMENDMENTS 1996 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104-317 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "As used in this section, 'district court' includes the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone; and 'district' includes the territorial jurisdiction of that court." 1982 - Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 97-164 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c). Former subsec. (c), which provided that if a case within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court of Claims were filed in a district court, the district court, if it were in the interest of justice, was required to transfer the case to the Court of Claims where the case would proceed as if it had been filed in the Court of Claims on the date that it was filed in the district court, was struck out. 1962 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87-845 added subsec. (d). 1960 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86-770 added subsec. (c). 1949 - Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, inserted "dismiss, or if it be in the interest of justice". EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 104-317 applicable to cases pending on Oct. 19, 1996, and to cases commenced on or after such date, see section 610(c) of Pub. L. 104-317, set out as a note under section 1404 of this title. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 97-164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97-164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 87-845 effective Jan. 2, 1962, see section 25 of Pub. L. 87-845, set out as a note under section 414 of this title. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1960 AMENDMENT Section 4 of Pub. L. 86-770 provided in part that: "The amendments made by sections 1 and 2 of this Act [adding subsec. (c) of this section and section 1506 of this title] shall apply to any case or proceeding pending on, or brought after, the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1960] in the district courts or the Court of Claims." -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1407 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1407. Multidistrict litigation -STATUTE- (a) When civil actions involving one or more common questions of fact are pending in different districts, such actions may be transferred to any district for coordinated or consolidated pretrial proceedings. Such transfers shall be made by the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation authorized by this section upon its determination that transfers for such proceedings will be for the convenience of parties and witnesses and will promote the just and efficient conduct of such actions. Each action so transferred shall be remanded by the panel at or before the conclusion of such pretrial proceedings to the district from which it was transferred unless it shall have been previously terminated: Provided, however, That the panel may separate any claim, cross-claim, counter-claim, or third-party claim and remand any of such claims before the remainder of the action is remanded. (b) Such coordinated or consolidated pretrial proceedings shall be conducted by a judge or judges to whom such actions are assigned by the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation. For this purpose, upon request of the panel, a circuit judge or a district judge may be designated and assigned temporarily for service in the transferee district by the Chief Justice of the United States or the chief judge of the circuit, as may be required, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 13 of this title. With the consent of the transferee district court, such actions may be assigned by the panel to a judge or judges of such district. The judge or judges to whom such actions are assigned, the members of the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation, and other circuit and district judges designated when needed by the panel may exercise the powers of a district judge in any district for the purpose of conducting pretrial depositions in such coordinated or consolidated pretrial proceedings. (c) Proceedings for the transfer of an action under this section may be initiated by - (i) the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation upon its own initiative, or (ii) motion filed with the panel by a party in any action in which transfer for coordinated or consolidated pretrial proceedings under this section may be appropriate. A copy of such motion shall be filed in the district court in which the moving party's action is pending. The panel shall give notice to the parties in all actions in which transfers for coordinated or consolidated pretrial proceedings are contemplated, and such notice shall specify the time and place of any hearing to determine whether such transfer shall be made. Orders of the panel to set a hearing and other orders of the panel issued prior to the order either directing or denying transfer shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the district court in which a transfer hearing is to be or has been held. The panel's order of transfer shall be based upon a record of such hearing at which material evidence may be offered by any party to an action pending in any district that would be affected by the proceedings under this section, and shall be supported by findings of fact and conclusions of law based upon such record. Orders of transfer and such other orders as the panel may make thereafter shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the district court of the transferee district and shall be effective when thus filed. The clerk of the transferee district court shall forthwith transmit a certified copy of the panel's order to transfer to the clerk of the district court from which the action is being transferred. An order denying transfer shall be filed in each district wherein there is a case pending in which the motion for transfer has been made. (d) The judicial panel on multidistrict litigation shall consist of seven circuit and district judges designated from time to time by the Chief Justice of the United States, no two of whom shall be from the same circuit. The concurrence of four members shall be necessary to any action by the panel. (e) No proceedings for review of any order of the panel may be permitted except by extraordinary writ pursuant to the provisions of title 28, section 1651, United States Code. Petitions for an extraordinary writ to review an order of the panel to set a transfer hearing and other orders of the panel issued prior to the order either directing or denying transfer shall be filed only in the court of appeals having jurisdiction over the district in which a hearing is to be or has been held. Petitions for an extraordinary writ to review an order to transfer or orders subsequent to transfer shall be filed only in the court of appeals having jurisdiction over the transferee district. There shall be no appeal or review of an order of the panel denying a motion to transfer for consolidated or coordinated proceedings. (f) The panel may prescribe rules for the conduct of its business not inconsistent with Acts of Congress and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. (g) Nothing in this section shall apply to any action in which the United States is a complainant arising under the antitrust laws. "Antitrust laws" as used herein include those acts referred to in the Act of October 15, 1914, as amended (38 Stat. 730; 15 U.S.C. 12), and also include the Act of June 19, 1936 (49 Stat. 1526; 15 U.S.C. 13, 13a, and 13b) and the Act of September 26, 1914, as added March 21, 1938 (52 Stat. 116, 117; 15 U.S.C. 56); but shall not include section 4A of the Act of October 15, 1914, as added July 7, 1955 (69 Stat. 282; 15 U.S.C. 15a). (h) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1404 or subsection (f) of this section, the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation may consolidate and transfer with or without the consent of the parties, for both pretrial purposes and for trial, any action brought under section 4C of the Clayton Act. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 90-296, Sec. 1, Apr. 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 109; amended Pub. L. 94-435, title III, Sec. 303, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1396.) -REFTEXT- REFERENCES IN TEXT The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (f), are set out in the Appendix to this title. Section 4C of the Clayton Act, referred to in subsec. (h), is section 4C of act Oct. 15, 1914, ch. 323, as added by Pub. L. 94- 435, title III, Sec. 301, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1394, which is classified to section 15c of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1976 - Pub. L. 94-435 added subsec. (h). -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1408 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1408. Venue of cases under title 11 -STATUTE- Except as provided in section 1410 of this title, a case under title 11 may be commenced in the district court for the district - (1) in which the domicile, residence, principal place of business in the United States, or principal assets in the United States, of the person or entity that is the subject of such case have been located for the one hundred and eighty days immediately preceding such commencement, or for a longer portion of such one- hundred-and-eighty-day period than the domicile, residence, or principal place of business, in the United States, or principal assets in the United States, of such person were located in any other district; or (2) in which there is pending a case under title 11 concerning such person's affiliate, general partner, or partnership. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 98-353, title I, Sec. 102(a), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 334.) -MISC1- PRIOR PROVISIONS A prior section 1408, added by Pub. L. 95-598, title II, Sec. 240(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2668, which related to bankruptcy appeals, did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95-598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy. EFFECTIVE DATE Section effective July 10, 1984, see section 122(a) of Pub. L. 98- 353, set out as a note under section 151 of this title. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1409 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1409. Venue of proceedings arising under title 11 or arising in or related to cases under title 11 -STATUTE- (a) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (b) and (d), a proceeding arising under title 11 or arising in or related to a case under title 11 may be commenced in the district court in which such case is pending. (b) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, a trustee in a case under title 11 may commence a proceeding arising in or related to such case to recover a money judgment of or property worth less than $1,000 or a consumer debt of less than $15,000, or a debt (excluding a consumer debt) against a noninsider of less than $10,000, only in the district court for the district in which the defendant resides. (c) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, a trustee in a case under title 11 may commence a proceeding arising in or related to such case as statutory successor to the debtor or creditors under section 541 or 544(b) of title 11 in the district court for the district where the State or Federal court sits in which, under applicable nonbankruptcy venue provisions, the debtor or creditors, as the case may be, may have commenced an action on which such proceeding is based if the case under title 11 had not been commenced. (d) A trustee may commence a proceeding arising under title 11 or arising in or related to a case under title 11 based on a claim arising after the commencement of such case from the operation of the business of the debtor only in the district court for the district where a State or Federal court sits in which, under applicable nonbankruptcy venue provisions, an action on such claim may have been brought. (e) A proceeding arising under title 11 or arising in or related to a case under title 11, based on a claim arising after the commencement of such case from the operation of the business of the debtor, may be commenced against the representative of the estate in such case in the district court for the district where the State or Federal court sits in which the party commencing such proceeding may, under applicable nonbankruptcy venue provisions, have brought an action on such claim, or in the district court in which such case is pending. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 98-353, title I, Sec. 102(a), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 334; amended Pub. L. 109-8, title IV, Sec. 410, Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 106.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2005 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109-8 substituted "$15,000, or a debt (excluding a consumer debt) against a noninsider of less than $10,000," for "$5,000". EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11, Bankruptcy, before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 11. EFFECTIVE DATE Section effective July 10, 1984, see section 122(a) of Pub. L. 98- 353, set out as a note under section 151 of this title. ADJUSTMENT OF DOLLAR AMOUNTS For adjustment of dollar amounts specified in subsec. (b) of this section by the Judicial Conference of the United States, see note set out under section 104 of Title 11, Bankruptcy. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1410 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1410. Venue of cases ancillary to foreign proceedings -STATUTE- A case under chapter 15 of title 11 may be commenced in the district court of the United States for the district - (1) in which the debtor has its principal place of business or principal assets in the United States; (2) if the debtor does not have a place of business or assets in the United States, in which there is pending against the debtor an action or proceeding in a Federal or State court; or (3) in a case other than those specified in paragraph (1) or (2), in which venue will be consistent with the interests of justice and the convenience of the parties, having regard to the relief sought by the foreign representative. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 98-353, title I, Sec. 102(a), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 335; amended Pub. L. 109-8, title VIII, Sec. 802(c)(4), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 146.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2005 - Pub. L. 109-8 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to venue of cases commenced under section 304 of title 11. EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11, Bankruptcy, before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 11. EFFECTIVE DATE Section effective July 10, 1984, see section 122(a) of Pub. L. 98- 353, set out as a note under section 151 of this title. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1411 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1411. Jury trials -STATUTE- (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, this chapter and title 11 do not affect any right to trial by jury that an individual has under applicable nonbankruptcy law with regard to a personal injury or wrongful death tort claim. (b) The district court may order the issues arising under section 303 of title 11 to be tried without a jury. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 98-353, title I, Sec. 102(a), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 335.) -MISC1- EFFECTIVE DATE Section effective July 10, 1984, except that subsec. (a) not applicable with respect to cases under Title 11, Bankruptcy, that are pending on July 10, 1984, or to proceedings arising in or related to such cases, see section 122(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 151 of this title. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1412 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1412. Change of venue -STATUTE- A district court may transfer a case or proceeding under title 11 to a district court for another district, in the interest of justice or for the convenience of the parties. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 98-353, title I, Sec. 102(a), July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 335.) -MISC1- EFFECTIVE DATE Section effective July 10, 1984, see section 122(a) of Pub. L. 98- 353, set out as a note under section 151 of this title. -End- -CITE- 28 USC Sec. 1413 02/01/2010 -EXPCITE- TITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 87 - DISTRICT COURTS; VENUE -HEAD- Sec. 1413. Venue of cases under chapter 5 of title 3 -STATUTE- Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this chapter, a civil action under section 1346(g) may be brought in the United States district court for the district in which the employee is employed or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 104-331, Sec. 3(b)(2)(A), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4069.) -COD- CODIFICATION Pub. L. 104-331, Sec. 3(b)(2)(A), which directed the amendment of chapter 37 of this title by adding this section at end, was executed by adding this section at the end of chapter 87 of this title to reflect the probable intent of Congress. -MISC1- EFFECTIVE DATE Section effective Oct. 1, 1997, see section 3(d) of Pub. L. 104- 331, set out as a note under section 1296 of this title. -End-

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